A smart contract has the power to invoke almost all the digital assets. Over the period, these contracts have possessed complexity and completely independent in nature. This is to ensure the progression of complex transactions like that of payments and currency exchange.
The different types of Smart Contracts
- The Dapps: This abbreviation is for ‘decentralized applications’.
- These applications are attached to the blockchain with self-programmed working operations and contain all the particular entities needed for its functioning.
- Moreover, different protocols have given diverse and special definitions for dapps like distributed applications and the one maintaining a public transaction ledger.
- Further, the cryptocurrency ether defines it as a transaction protocol on cryptographic blockchain that maintains the well-execution of contract requisites.
- The users’ information is pseudonymously shielded while running the application across the network nodules.
- For example, LaZooz is decentralized car ride scheme, Storj for decentralized data storing and a lot more.
- The Characteristic features include:
Open Source with no one else to control its operation or data and records should be stored in blockchains;
Uses standard algorithms to issue tokens;
The protocols should be in an updating state that adapts to proposed developments and works with market situation.
- The DAOs and The DACs: This stands for ‘decentralized autonomous organizations and corporations’ respectively.
- These are more complex than dapps as they are derived from the concept of artificial intelligence.
- Initiates to run on blockchain operations with the execution of pre-specified and approved tasks based on changing environments.
- Tasks are being performed without any kind of human involvement under a set of business protocol and give the impact of real-world business that could be re-established on the blockchain.
- For example, DriveShare and Metadisk are the apps that assist users to rent out the left disk storage space on the storj cloud network.
- The DASs and the Self-Bootstrapped firms: Indicates the decentralized autonomous societies.
- This can be stated as the taskforces of smart contracts or the entire world of Dapps, DAOs, and DACs working independently.
- The most interesting feature of a self-bootstrapped organization is that it is the venture ideas stemming out from the bc concept or from an individual. This entirely new project stands out all alone with its smart contract associations and crowdfunds itself and investors on the mission to operate and receive back the comments through the prevailing prediction markets and bc voting. They can eventually dissolve or re-evaluate on periodically conducted voting.
We are gifted with a handful of apps related to these smart contracts like Bit-message, a text share technology and Twister, a decentralized Twitter. All these secured apps come to our benefit and are autonomously operated via network lumps.
IPO means initial public offering which refers to the first time letting out of a company’s shares to the general people for sale. It is also known as going public, which is a company’s status from being private to moving as a public with more of general participants for investment purposes. In the private stature, the company deals with its founders whoa are usually family and friends and internal investment partners like venture capitalists and angel brokers.
Purpose of an IPO:
IPO is a common word which we hear very often in the business world. Every company comes through this way of inviting new investors at some point in their life cycle. This is mainly due to some reasons like expansion and further betterment of the industry. Hence IPO is a good option to make more money and also come in partnership with a good amount of customers.
Though there are few other methods of borrowing from institutions, finding more investors or being acquired by other companies for expansion of the business and to raise capital when needed. But IPO is the clearest and best options by far for the purpose of going into better business.
The benefits of an IPO:
IPO is a wise business decision undertaken to make the business more strong and also more public. Before thinking of putting this as a way of raising funds then we need to look into the benefits of an IPO.
- It is possible to find a large number of prospective investors through an IPO when the company is going global.Otherwise, it is difficult to find investors who can contribute to raising funds for the business growth.
- IPO helps the company to get a lower cost of capital and expect to promote the business from the return it makes. This is risky as there is no stability about this return at all times.
- Another benefit is that IPO allows for a business to rapidly increase its sales and profits which happens due to the public image it gets due to the IPO.
- Public companies will be able to retain good and effective employees rather than limiting the equity participation.
- The company can facilitate for acquisitions and aim at making the business more globally well known for the process of profit making.
- A company which releases an IPO will make the highest raising of funds when compared to other methods and other companies.
There has been a business revolution since few years with the upgraded business laws and technology being a crucial factor for business. This is achieved by closely bringing all the areas of business service and literacy provided to even the most backward areas.
One such area of upcoming revolution is financial inclusion. As the term suggests it means, including all the areas in a country or particular place in delivering financial services such as banking, payments, credit facilities for these areas. It is also called a inclusive financing as the financial services are made inclusive to less privileged areas for their better reach to the financial services.
Objectives of financial inclusion:
- It helps to offer people with affordable financial services such as credit facilities, loan services, fund transfer services and other payment facilities.
- It builds proper financial institutions which cater to the needs of the people and which follow the rules of the central financial authorities.
- Helps to maintain financial sustainability so that the less privileged people get to use the services easily.
- It helps to increase the awareness among the underprivileged class of people and make this facility more global.’
- It helps to improve the financial literacy of a nation when more people get involved in the process.
- It helps to bring the digital financial solutions to all the classes of people so that not only the urban areas get the benefit from these.
- It brings mobile banking and ATM machines to even the poorest section of people for them to benefit out of it.
- It brings the facility of tailor-made solutions to the people who are new to this financial service and hence make it more easier for them to use it.
- There are many governmental and non-governmental institutions working towards this mission of bringing financial services closer to all those who are in need of it.
Need for financial inclusion
Financial inclusion improves a country’s financial development comprehensively. It makes the economic resource more in use and enables the savings mentality in the minds of the people irrespective of they being rich or poor.hence it regulates and contributes the country’s financial growth in a consistent manner.
Poor people are usually cheated by rich landlords and local financial and unauthorized institutions which happens due to their financial illiteracy. This can be eliminated completely with financial inclusion as the greatest solution for it.
It helps the poor people to benefit from the services in banking and other credit facilities and includes them in the country’s financial chain and also helps them to be aware of the technology development happening in the current business world.
When two companies combine their operations they become a merged company, and when one company is taken over by another it is an acquisition. They are often compared with a marriage as not only the individuals come together, but different families coming together and engaging in a lifelong relationship. The employees of the company become the window to the world and are the driving force of the company to charter into new lines of business with increased productivity.
Not only M & A deals are rooting for a bigger corporation they are considered to be transformative in nature. The main element in all the mergers and acquisition, cost, and profitability is kept a keen eye on; parallel the competition from other similar industry is reduced.
Major Pros of M&A:
- a significant increase in the economies of scale, as bigger the company, higher is the profitability and increase in the overall efficiency of the business for example with major mergers happening in the telecommunication industry , lot of duplication work is wiped off, operating costs are reduced as the business are similar in nature, and an increased customer base
- with a major part of the business is done the same way, a lot more fund can be allocated for research and development to introduce newer lines of production or increasing the existing capacity of business by advanced research which holds good for the major pharmaceutical industry
- Depending on the type of merger, in case of horizontal mergers the economies of scale is quite extensive and a major cost reduction is possible, for example, the airline industry has a high fixed nature of cost which can be reduced with series of mergers
- Once an M & A happens many companies become monopolies in the industry, however, they are strictly regulated and the government keeps a tab on their pricing patterns so that the consumers do not pay higher prices for the products.
- Mergers could lead to lessening the choice of goods and services which consumers were availing had there been many companies with similar products available for them in the markets like food/clothing/retail industries
- since two companies would have similar processes the job, duplication of labor is possible hence when two people were doing the earlier work, will be done by one thus increasing job losses, unless the employees are absorbed in other verticals.
- Synergizing the employees to the common goal of the newly merged company is a challenging task and not all get the message clear in terms of new work responsibilities and reporting, causing internal employee grievances.
If you have a great idea, then you can sell it and create a business. How simple does it sound! Yet, many people do not know how to develop that idea into a business or how to get finance for a simple idea to bloom into a commercial success. So here we are with many ideas from financial experts, which make it an easy exercise and you can use one or many in combination to grow the creative germ of an idea into a successful venture.
- If it is a not-for-profit and a small business, then you can get a micro-loan from institutions and start your journey.
- If the business idea sounds risky to others, then many institutions may not agree to fund it. However, if you are convinced about its success then you can try to finance it using your own savings and other sources. A mortgage on a home or some borrowing from friends and family may also help you.
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- If it’s a product that is surely going to sell or if you already have a buyer in place, then a partial advance payment can take you a long way in starting the production of goods.
- SBA loans are meant for small business and startups. If the idea is good and viable, the government agencies may help you start the project and provide you with the necessary capital as well.
- Angel investors are always looking out for good business ideas. They almost always provide the funding against some share in the business. This is a good deal for both the investors and the borrowers. Many of the successful businesses in the IT and software industry started with the help of angel investors.
- Similar to the Angel investors are the venture capitalists and they are also on the lookout for new ideas where they can invest their money. They can help you start your journey into the business world.
- Crowdfunding is another concept that helps new business ideas to grow into big entities. There are many websites now that help people to raise funds from people by pitching their idea through their program.
Historically we can see, that Dutch and English merchants or even Spanish businessmen used to pool their money together and start the venture together. With times the means and methods changed and the process of business development also changed. What did not change, however, is the need for money. There are many different types of fundraising techniques available now. There are many platforms which try to bring the angel investors and borrowers together. What you really need is a sound business plan and then you can find the appropriate funding partner.
Whenever a new technology is discovered or developed then people need to know and understand it before they can use it comfortably. Today’s world is using cutting edge technology and many people do not understand the mechanism of many tools and equipment. We use jargons like digital currency and blockchains interchangeably without even understanding that these two are actually two different things.
Let us understand these two terms so that you will be able to use them appropriately when the time comes. First the names of the concepts. As the name suggests, ‘block-chain’ is the chain of blocks; the blocks here mean the pieces of information. Initially, there was only one currently being used online and people used the two terms without making any distinction. But slowly the term blockchain started to be used without any monetary value or token attached to it. It is essentially a block of information and is connected to more blocks of data. It is the ledger that keeps every transaction recorded, and is open to everybody in the network and kept secure with encryption protocols in place. Many big companies are trying to use this technology for various administrative purposes.
This is another name of the digital currency or virtual currency that is connected to block chains. In the beginning, there was only one currency and it was called Bitcoin, which was the token given in lieu of each block of information.With new currencies, it is actually a little different and the tokens and currency may have different names. For example, in the technology Ethereum, the token is called Ether. If you are familiar with portmanteau or hybrid names then cryptocurrency is the amalgamation of two words, cryptogenic and currency.
Why are these becoming popular
Blockchains and digital currencies are generating widespread curiosity and many large corporations are trying to incorporate the two aspects of their companies. The important aspect here is the control and security of both these intangible aspects. Cryptocurrency is basically the value attached to a piece of information and the information is the building blocks or the blockchain. Some studies have shown that it is possible to use the block chains in other aspects of work, and the data can be secured with encryption. But as the governments and people alike are scared of data breach and the value attached to the leaks in terms of monetary value, there are still many apprehensions about the actual implementation.
Some huge countries like China and India keep cautioning people to be careful while venturing into digital currency. They do not comprehend the full extent of its reach and how it is taking over the internet financial circuit. People will also appreciate the significance and then slowly start accepting these currencies.
As known to all of us, CSR is something important for all types of businesses, be it small or big. So when it is viewed from this point of view, it is very clear that even the smallest sized business is required to implement this concept of CSR in its business operations. Now they have a difficulty doing this. Generally, every company is required to or is expected to make some amount of contribution towards following this CSR and when comes to the small and medium enterprises, they find it a little challenging to allocate or apportion funds for this. But even with this constraint, many of the SME`s strive to follow this core concept at levels possible and affordable for them and this way they try to add value to their services for the society. So these companies try to use strategies that would support CSR at levels they could afford to follow them.
Though we say and emphasize on following CSR, not all of the companies do this. Again it is not that they do not gain any benefits because they are not under the spell of CSR. They do make profits, they do make a progress but there would definitely be a point where they would realize how the implementation of CSR would add up to their performance and growth. As said above, this is not something followed by all but very soon there would be a situation when people would realize and understand the importance of being socially aware, socially conscious and quality conscious and it is probably the time when they would start implementing and following the ideas and ideals of CSR.
It is in fact believed that the smaller ones benefit more than the bigger firms.
- This is mainly because they are smaller in size and hence it becomes simple and easy for them to get adapted to the changes easily.
- They easily get to identify their stakeholders because since they are small they generally do not hold too many of them and hence it becomes easy for them to zero down on the numbers. This way they will also get to make some really productive and meaningful expenditure towards the CSR initiatives which would, in turn, help them in their profits, growth, and development.
- When CSR initiatives are for customers of a smaller group, it becomes easy for implementing them and also to collect and research on the outcomes